Synopsis of our Seminars
Some areas of the USA have extremely high lightning activity. When we consider the strategic importance of some of the systems being installed, to our society, it is imperative that they should be robust enough to survive the adverse electrical and weather related problems that can be encountered. Lightning is the most severe cause of damage and can result in expensive and catastrophic failure.
These seminars are designed for delegates to understand the magnitude of the risks, considering the sources of surges and how protection schemes work. This includes the function of the earthing system, the various components and its relationship to surge protection devices.
Lightning is known to have up to 200,000 amps and 30,000,000 volts of energy, however, these are the extremes. Scientific studies have measured the median lightning energy at 32kA for a negative strike and 55 kA for a positive strike. This indicates that the energy in a lightning is almost and infinite and the surge protection devices (SPD), must be selected for an "acceptable" risk and application.
If you get Lightning related damage at a site, you know your protection system is either defective or inadequate. If you do not investigate the Lightning Protection system and "FIX" it, then it will happen again and again.
Knowing that a site's protection system will deteriorate with time, stress and equipment modifications makes regular auditing a critical part of a preventative maintenance program. We train delegates in the techniques and test methods to evaluate a site.
An essential part of a course when training maintenance personell is the techniques to investigate or audit a Lightning Protection System and methods of repair.
Understanding the coupling mechanism, that causes the damage is essential in order to be able to design a protection scheme. The seminars provide a total understanding to engineers designing and selecting protection systems equipment. The seminars are not, in any way, product or technology related and simply discusses the threat issues, technologies available along with advantages / disadvantages of differing system configurations.
Seminars are tailored to the specific areas of interest that can be 1 hour or two days, depending on the clients needs. The two day seminars are structured with morning class room and afternoon on site practical work. The client is asked to selected problem sites for the afternoon practical work. This ensures the delegates understand the science while conducting practical applications.
Seminars cover any or all of the following topics
- The source of Surges & Transients.
- Areas of Damage catastrophic to equipment, the erosion of the MTBF and data errors.
- National Lightning Detection Network lightning statistics for the USA.
- The amount of energy in Lightning.
- The components of a lightning protection system.
- Physical Lightning Protection vs. Surge Protection.
- Cone of protection, air terminals, dissipation arrays and earth impedance Dual functions of a surge protector.
- IEC & IEEE C62.41 definition of a direct strike & the damaging coupling mechanisms.
- IEEE A, B & C classifications of threat.
- Earth potentials and coupling mechanisms.
- Shunt and Series surge protectors.
- Typical damage coupling mechanisms related to various industries and applications
- Probability of lightning damage and the protection system
- Protection designs which will make a site survive 99% of all direct strikes.
- Surge protection technologies & jargon.
- The significance of national, international specifications and testing of surge protection devices (SPD's)
- Understanding Surge Protectors specifications & jargon.
- AC Power surge protectors, Primary, & Secondary Cascades.
- Filters and sine wave tracking.
- Data, Video, RF and Communications surge protectors.
- Ground rods and earthing system designs, practical considerations.
- The significance of earth resistance in the protection system.
- Physical lightning protection, (NFPA 780 specification).
- Uffer earths.
- Chemical rods.
- Measuring earth resistance using "clamp-on" and "fall-of-potential" meters.
- Early Streamer Emission Devices (ESE and Dissipation Arrays)